A pond is an artificial or naturally occurring area that holds a small volume of still water. But is a pond an ecosystem?
Due to its unique topography and environment, a pond is an ecosystem that houses various living things and creates a sustainable environment.
From microbes to dangerous snakes and alligators—ponds are home to diverse flora and fauna.
A pond ecosystem comprises biotic and abiotic factors that coexist to create a self-sufficient community.
Biotic factors are concerned with the living organisms in an area. They include microorganisms, animals, and plants.
In contrast, abiotic factors are the nonliving components. Examples are rock formations, sand, temperature, humidity, chemical reactions, etc.
Different organisms give and take from one another in ponds. They can be classified into two categories based on food consumption:
Known as living organisms that can produce their food, autotrophs usually process their food through photosynthesis (activated by sunlight).
These plants or protists are called producers because they feed most animals and fungi. Below are the autotrophs that thrive on and around ponds:
They’re the greenish blanket that covers a pond. Although from the kingdom Protista, phytoplankton also undergo photosynthesis and produce oxygen as a byproduct.
The oxygen is released around the pond and in its water, which helps bacteria and animals breathe.
One thing you’ll notice about ponds is their slimy and greenish physical environment. It is mainly due to periphytic algae—a microscopic organism that sticks to rocks and gives them a slimy texture and greenish color.
Like phytoplankton, they also undergo produce oxygen.
These are plants found in the limnetic zone (middle part of the pond). Since they submerge in the water, they act as a perfect source of oxygen and shelter for fish.
Examples are pond weeds, eelgrass, and bladderworts covering the pond’s base.
From their name, the roots of these plants are in the water while their leaves and stems are above. They also house different insects and fish.
Water lilies, chestnuts, pennyworts, and duckweeds are typical floating plants that you can find in ponds.
If there’s anything that gives ponds its magical touch, it’s the bog plants. They’re usually flowers or ornamental plants that grow on the edges of ponds.
Aside from making the pond look scenic, they provide shade, food, and shelter for insects and other animals.
Common examples of bog plants are the blue iris, bulrush, cardinal flowers, and creeping jenny.
Heterotrophs are living organisms that consume other plants or animals to get energy. All animals and fungi are heterotrophs.
Most heterotrophs are near a pond’s littoral (shallow) and limnetic zones (middle). Below are heterotrophs usually found in a pond:
They’re microscopic organisms that flow with the tide. They feed on phytoplankton and serve as food sources for bigger animals like fish.
Slightly bigger than zooplankton, they are the tiny critters you can find in pond waters.
They also provide food to most animals in the pond.
Animals with backbones, like fish, turtles, salamanders, snakes, birds, etc. make up this group.
They feed on animals that are smaller than their size.
Decomposers are essential in preserving the pond ecosystem. They make it possible for an ecosystem to conserve and cycle energy from one organism to another.
By breaking down dead matter, decomposers produce carbon dioxide, water, and nutrients—these feed producers (plants) that, in turn, are eaten by other animals.
Decomposers are mostly benthic animals (live on the base of the pond) that feed on various things like dead plants, fish, and other microbes.
Decomposers are usually found in the lowest zone of the pond. It’s the muddy and deepest part where the sunlight can’t reach.
Here are the decomposers that thrive in the depths of ponds:
Though worms are common in ground soil, most can adapt to water. Aquatic larvae, in the preliminary part of their metamorphosis, can behave as worms too.
Decomposers like nematodes, oligochaetes, leeches, flat, horsehair, and tubifex worms feed on producers, plant matter, and biofilms.
Some of them can even grow and reproduce inside a host’s body to accelerate the breakdown of the host’s tissue.
Slugs and snails are common gastropods found in ponds. Their need for moisture to move makes ponds a perfect place to hang out.
These soft-bodied mollusks are well adapted to either moving or still waters. They eat a variety of microbes, plant matter, and other decomposers.
Species like apple snails keep ponds cleaner by eating excess biofilms that grow on rocks.
Bivalves are the most diverse decomposers. They filter excess matter and nutrients in water while being a food source for large fish.
They can be found in almost all parts of the world except in frigid regions. However, due to anthropogenic activities, they are at risk of extinction.
Pea clams, swan, and zebra mussels are among the most common bivalves in ponds.
Insects like mosquitoes, midge, and dragonflies lay eggs in stagnant waters.
These eggs will hatch into larvae you can see on a pond’s surface. These critters will look like worms in the first parts of their metamorphosis.
Larvae feed on excess nutrients, microbes, decaying plants, and animal matter to reach their complete form.
More than ever, human activities have rapidly tipped off the balance of nature. One of its most significant consequences is climate change.
The changes in temperature and other climatic variables have affected different bodies of water, including ponds. Below are some adverse effects of climate change in ponds:
The drastic temperature rise can cause both drought and flooding.
Countries near the equator are experiencing more extreme heat as the year passes. It has caused the drying of water forms due to rapid evaporation, leaving animals in ponds homeless.
Following droughts is heavy rainfall compelled by the rapid condensation of heavy clouds. The disruptive volume of water can cause floods and ruin ecosystems in ponds.
As a consequent effect of flooding, invasive species can fill up ponds and imbalance the pond’s food chain.
One of the most common invasive species in ponds is janitor fish. Aside from competing for food, it could grow from 2-18 feet and quickly devour smaller fish.
Most invasive janitor fish are from aquariums and are irresponsibly disposed of by their owners in canals or rivers. They eventually end up in other water forms like ponds due to flooding.
Ponds are one of nature’s sophisticated ecosystems. They’re relatively small but are home to various plants and animals.
However, the ecological balance of ponds is endangered due to increasing anthropogenic activities.
The rising temperature causes drought that diminishes ponds and floods that introduce different invasive species.
Ben has a bachelor’s degree in construction engineering. When not constructing or remodeling X-Ray Rooms, Cardiovascular Labs, and Pharmacies, you can find him at home with wife and two daughters. Outside of family, He loves grilling and barbequing on his Big Green Egg and Blackstone Griddle, as well as working on projects around the house.
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